As a major economic center of China, there have been recent concerns that the use of Cantonese in Guangzhou is diminishing in favour of Mandarin, both through the continual influx of Mandarin-speaking migrants from impoverished areas and strict government policies. It is classified as part of the Sino-Tibetan language family.Shanghainese, like other Wu variants, is mutually unintelligible with other varieties of Chinese, such as Mandarin. Instances of the letter ⟨u⟩ under Hong Kong's romanization systems are often replaced by ⟨o⟩ under Macao's romanization systems (e.g. Books and studies for teachers and students in primary and secondary schools usually use this scheme. As Cantonese is used primarily in Hong Kong, Macau, and other overseas Chinese communities, it is usually written with traditional Chinese characters. ), and the highly of­fe… 136.228.180.74 (talk) 15:26, 18 January 2019 (UTC), The article claims that consonants are not palatalized before vowels, but the reference [4] contradicts this. Because of their dominance in Chinese diaspora overseas, standard Cantonese and its dialect Taishanese are among the most common Chinese languages that one may encounter in the West. Cantonese films date to the early days of Chinese cinema, and the first Cantonese talkie, White Gold Dragon (白金龍), was made in 1932 by the Tianyi Film Company. The entire wiki with photo and video galleries for each article. The overwhelming majority of Chinese speakers in the United Kingdom use Cantonese, with about 300,000 British people claiming it as their first language. Although Cantonese shares much vocabulary with Mandarin, the two Sinitic languages are mutually unintelligible, largely because of lexical differences, but also due to differences in grammar and pronunciation. [39] For example, in New York City, Cantonese still predominates in the city's older, traditional western portion of Chinatown in Manhattan and in Brooklyn's small new Chinatowns in sections of Bensonhurst and in Homecrest. Not sure if anyone else realizes this, but when a Cantonese speaker pronounces words quickly the final stops (-p, -t, -k) often becomes assimilated to the next consonant, especially if the next consonant is a plosive (or stop consonant). Hong Kong Cantonese has some minor variations in phonology, but is largely identical to standard Guangzhou Cantonese. It was apparently Bridgman's innovation to mark the tones with an open circle (upper register tones) or an underlined open circle (lower register tones) at the four corners of the romanized word in analogy with the traditional Chinese system of marking the tone of a character with a circle (lower left for "even," upper left for "rising," upper right for "going," and lower right for "entering" tones). As a result, Cantonese is being given a more important status by the natives than ever before as a common identity of the local people.[16]. [56][57] Additionally, a distinct classical literature was developed in Cantonese, with Middle Chinese texts sounding more similar to modern Cantonese than other present-day Chinese varieties, including Mandarin. [39][49], Along with Mandarin and Hokkien, Cantonese has its own popular music, Cantopop, which is the predominant genre in Hong Kong. [36] Many institutes of higher education have traditionally had Chinese programs based on Cantonese, with some continuing to offer these programs despite the rise of Mandarin. While older Taiwanese immigrants have learned Cantonese to foster integration within the traditional Chinese American populations, more recent arrivals from the Mainland continue to use Mandarin exclusively. Cantonese is the predominant Chinese variety spoken in Hong Kong and Macau. [62] The proclamation of Mandarin as the official national language, however, was not fully accepted by the Cantonese authorities in the early 20th century, who argued for the "regional uniqueness" of their own local language and commercial importance of the region. English and Cantonese Phonology 69 but remains there without air being released. [2] While the term Cantonese specifically refers to the prestige variety, it is often used to refer to the entire Yue subgroup of Chinese, including related but largely mutually unintelligible languages and dialects such as Taishanese. Modern Cantonese phonology Robert S. Bauer, Paul K. Benedict Snippet view - 1997. [64] Additionally, there are reports of students being punished for speaking other Chinese languages at school, resulting in a reluctance of younger children to communicate in their native languages, including Cantonese. The Chinatowns of Queens comprise the primary cultural center for New York City's Chinese population and are more middle class.[40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47]. While they do not differ greatly, Jyutping and Yale are the two most used and taught systems today in the West. Modern Cantonese Phonology book. I understand an analysis of nine tones (separating the high, mid and low-mid entering tones from their non-entering counterparts) and that of ten tones (acknowledging that some speakers differentiate a high tone from a high-falling tone). Since a 1909 Qing dynasty decree, China has promoted Mandarin for use in education, the media, and official communications. Unlike the above two differences, this merge is found alongside the standard pronunciation in Hong Kong rather than being replaced. Furthermore, the definitions are vague or lacking for many key terms, such as “syllables”, “terminals” and “tones”. Nevertheless, there have been recent attempts to minimize the use of Cantonese in China. Hong Kong Macau Language codes; ISO 639-3: yue (superset for all Yue dialects): Glottolog: cant1236: Linguasphere: 79-AAA-ma: This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Wong. does -ing merge into -in for some speakers or do they always remain distinct ([ɪn] vs [iːn])? And what finals exactly undergo -k --> -t? The Zhongshan variant of Cantonese, with origins in the western Pearl River Delta, is spoken by many Chinese immigrants in Hawaii, and some in San Francisco and the Sacramento River Delta (see Locke, California); it is a Yuehai variety much like Guangzhou Cantonese, but has "flatter" tones. Samuel Wells Willams' Tonic Dictionary of the Chinese Language in the Canton Dialect (Yinghua fenyun cuoyao 1856), is an alphabetic rearrangement, translation and annotation of the Fenyun. [52] This is largely due to the presence of British Hong Kongers and the fact that many British Chinese also have origins in the former British colonies in Southeast Asia of Singapore and Malaysia. Historically, speakers called this variety "Canton speech" or "Guangzhou speech" (廣州話; 广州话; Gwóngjāu wá), although this term is now seldom used outside Guangzhou. In contrast, standard written Chinese continues to be used in formal literature, professional and government documents, television and movie subtitles, and news media. In colloquial or hastened speech this becomes jap:un (where the final -t assimilates to p, and the resulting p is geminated). Eventualaj ŝanĝoj en la … In contrast, Southern California hosts a much larger Mandarin-speaking population, with Cantonese found in more historical Chinese communities such as that of Chinatown, Los Angeles, and older Chinese ethnoburbs such as San Gabriel, Rosemead, and Temple City. Unlike the United States, recent immigration from mainland China and Taiwan to Canada has been small, and Cantonese still remains the predominant Chinese variety in the country.[51]. [28], Cantonese is widely used as the inter-communal language among Chinese Cambodians, especially in Phnom Penh and other urban areas. There are about 630 sounds in the Cantonese syllabary. In contrast with Mandarin-speaking areas of China, Cantonese romanization systems are excluded in the education systems of both Hong Kong and the Guangdong province. [21], Due to the popularity of Hong Kong popular culture, especially through drama series and popular music, Cantonese is widely understood by the Chinese in all parts of Malaysia, even though a large proportion of the Chinese Malaysian population is non-Cantonese. Royo322 (talk) 04:10, 20 February 2019 (UTC)Arroyo, It'd be good to elaborate on this, e.g. This has contributed to a segregation of communities based on linguistic cleavage. [17] Additionally, Cantonese media and popular culture from Hong Kong is popular throughout the region. Such an articulation, in effect, neutralizes the contrast between aspirated and unaspirated plosives, since The de facto standard pronunciation of Cantonese is that of Canton (Guangzhou). Generally, plain stops are written with voiced consonants (/p/, /t/, /ts/, and /k/ as b, d, z/j, and g respectively), and aspirated stops with unvoiced ones, as in pinyin. In Vietnam, Cantonese is the dominant language of the ethnic Chinese community, usually referred to as Hoa, which numbers about one million people and constitutes one of the largest minority groups in the country. An example is in the word for country (國), pronounced in standard Guangzhou as gwok but as gok with the merge. Follow @ChineseLinks on Twitter, to get notified about new resources!. In practice, Hong Kong follows a loose, unnamed romanization scheme used by the Government of Hong Kong. Due to the linguistic history of Hong Kong and Macau, and the use of Cantonese in many established overseas Chinese communities, the use of Cantonese is quite widespread compared to the presence of its speakers residing in China. Some of the loanwords are even more popular than their Chinese counterparts. A history of chinese film production may add depth, or even differences that occur with films from 1993 and 2019. Now it may relate to Although termed as "lazy sound" (懶音) and considered substandard to Guangzhou pronunciation, the phenomenon has been widespread in the territories since the early 20th century. Sentence structure, in particular the placement of verbs, sometimes differs between the two varieties. It is also used as the medium of instruction in schools, alongside English. The distinguished linguist Y. R. Chao developed a Cantonese adaptation of his Gwoyeu Romatzyh system. It was the standard romanization until the Yale system supplanted it. Modern Cantonese Phonology Robert S. Bauer, Paul K. Benedict Limited preview - 1997. Due to its status as a prestige dialect among all the dialects of the Yue branch of Chinese varieties, it is often called "Standard Cantonese" (標準粵語; 标准粤语; Bīujéun Yuhtyúh). For instance, dim sum is often known as diǎn xīn in Singapore's English-language media, though this is largely a matter of style, and most Singaporeans will still refer to it as dim sum when speaking English. In Malaysia, Cantonese is widely spoken amongst the Malaysian Chinese community in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur[20] and the surrounding areas in the Klang Valley (Petaling Jaya, Ampang, Cheras, Selayang, Sungai Buloh, Puchong, Shah Alam, Kajang, Bangi, and Subang Jaya). Written Chinese was originally developed for Classical Chinese, [citation needed] and was the main literary language of China until the 19th century. Differences between the three main standards are in bold. In the 2011 census, the Australian Bureau of Statistics listed 336,410 and 263,673 speakers of Mandarin and Cantonese, respectively. This is similar to the sokoun phenomenon in Japanese. This system of written Cantonese is often found in colloquial contexts such as entertainment magazines and social media, as well as on advertisements. The most notable difference between Hong Kong and Guangzhou pronunciation is the substitution of the liquid nasal (/l/) for the nasal initial (/n/) in many words. Many speakers reflect their exposure to Vietnamese with a Vietnamese accent or a tendency to code-switch between Cantonese and Vietnamese.[19]. Meanwhile, Cantonese has remained the official variety of Chinese in Hong Kong and Macau, both during and after the colonial period.[61]. Furthermore, the system of Macau differs slightly from Hong Kong's in that the spellings are influenced by the Portuguese language due to colonial history. Socioeconomic statuses are also a factor as well. [9], Despite the cession of Macau to Portugal in 1557 and Hong Kong to Britain in 1842, the ethnic Chinese population of the two territories largely originated from the 19th and 20th century immigration from Guangzhou and surrounding areas, making Cantonese the predominant Chinese language in the territories. [48] Mandarin predominates in much of the emergent Chinese American enclaves in eastern Los Angeles County and other areas of the metropolitan region. His­tor­i­cally, fi­nals that end in a stop con­so­nant were con­sid­ered as "checked tones" and treated sep­a­rately by di­achroniccon­ven­tion, iden­ti­fy­ing Can­tonese with nine tones. Cantonese drama series on terrestrial TV channels are instead dubbed in Mandarin and broadcast without the original Cantonese audio and soundtrack. However, originals may be available through other sources such as cable television and online videos. [3][4] This results in the situation in which a Cantonese and a Mandarin text may look similar but are pronounced differently. Less prevalent, but still notable differences found among a number of Hong Kong speakers include: Cantonese vowels tend to be traced further back to Middle Chinese than their Mandarin analogues, such as M. /aɪ/ vs. C. /ɔːi/; M. /i/ vs. C. /ɐi/; M. /ɤ/ vs. C. /ɔː/; M. /ɑʊ/ vs. C. /ou/ etc. In Guangdong and Guangxi, people also call it "provincial capital speech" (省城話; 省城话; Sáangsìng wá) or "plain speech" (白話; 白话; Baahkwá). As a result, many loanwords are created and exported to China, Taiwan, and Singapore. The Foreign Service Institute has classified Cantonese as a "Super-Hard" language. Systematic efforts to develop an alphabetic representation of Cantonese began with the arrival of Protestant missionaries in China early in the nineteenth century. For consonants, some differences include M. /ɕ, tɕ, tɕʰ/ vs. C. /h, k, kʰ/; M. /ʐ/ vs. C. /j/; and a greater syllable coda diversity in Cantonese (such as syllables ending in -t, -p, or -k). Forms of popular culture from Hong Kong, such as television series, cinema and pop music have become popular in Singaporean society, and non-dubbed original versions of the media became widely available. [10] Cantonese remained a dominant and influential language in southeastern China until the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and its promotion of Standard Mandarin Chinese as the sole official language of the nation throughout the last half of the 20th century, although its influence still remains strong within the region.[11]. [55] Around this period and continuing into the 1900s, the ancestors of most of the population of Hong Kong and Macau arrived from Guangzhou and surrounding areas after they were ceded to Britain and Portugal, respectively. Lam 林, Chan 陳). While the governments of Hong Kong and Macau utilize a romanization system for proper names and geographic locations, they are inconsistent in the transcription of some sounds and the systems are not taught in schools. Historically, finals that end in a stop consonant were considered as "checked tones" and treated separately by diachronic convention, identifying Cantonese with nine tones (九声六调). In Hong Kong and Macau, as well as among overseas Chinese communities, the language is referred to as "Guangdong speech" or "Canton Province speech" (廣東話; 广东话; Gwóngdūng wá), or simply as "Chinese" (中文; Jūngmán). Nicholas Belfeld Dennys used Chalmers romanization in his primer. Click one or more tags to show relevant resources. In English, the term "Cantonese" can be ambiguous. Another key feature of Hong Kong Cantonese is the merging of the two syllabic nasals /ŋ̩/ and /m̩/. He derived an IPA-based transcription system, the S. L. Wong system, used by many Chinese dictionaries later published in Hong Kong. As a result, Mandarin is becoming more common among the Chinese American community. Hong Kong Cantonese has some minor variations in phonology, but is largely identical to standard Guangzhou Cantonese. ISBN: 978-0-521-65236-0. On the mainland, Cantonese continued to serve as the lingua franca of Guangdong and Guangxi provinces even after Mandarin was made the official language of the government by the Qing dynasty in the early 1900s. ", "Immigrant's Entrepreneurial Opportunities: The Case of the Chinese in Portugal", "Cantonese almost became the official language", "Say It Loud: Language and Identity in Taiwan and Hong Kong", "Variation and merger of the rising tones in Hong Kong Cantonese", "Identifying the Tai substratum in Cantonese", Hong Kong Government site on the HK Supplementary Character Set (HKSCS), The Memorial Museum of Generalissimo Sun Yat-sen's Mansion, Museum of the Western Han Dynasty Mausoleum of the Nanyue King, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center Central Stadium, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cantonese&oldid=992833274, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Yue Chinese-language text, Language articles without speaker estimate, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text, Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 10:05. Diu (tra­di­tional Chi­nese: 屌 or 𨳒 ; Jyut­ping: diu2), lit­er­ally mean­ing fuck, is a com­mon but grossly vul­gar pro­fan­ity in Can­tonese. Given the history of the development of the Yue languages and dialects during the Tang dynasty migrations to the region, in overseas Chinese communities, it is also referred to as "Tang speech" (唐話; Tòhng wá), given that the Cantonese people refer to themselves as "people of Tang" (唐人; Tòhng yàhn). Chao developed a Cantonese sound ( or sound segment ) usually consists of an initial ( onset and... The place of local Cantonese language and Culture remains contentious affect both the spellings of Hong Basic... Kong follows a loose, unnamed romanization scheme used by the Hong Kong follows a loose, unnamed scheme! Cantonese background emphasise their non-Mainland origins ( e.g under Macao 's romanization system are same as Hong and! Vietnamese accent or a tendency to code-switch between Cantonese and Fuzhounese enclaves in York. Feature may have roots in the way that the vowel length can affect both the spellings of Hong Kong (! You may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode.... New cantonese phonology wikipedia which still embodied the phonology of Old Chinese language of the systems phonemes! Schools in Thailand have also traditionally been the 2010 proposal that Guangzhou television increase broadcast... Nation and Cantonese phonology Robert S. Bauer, Paul K. Benedict Snippet view - 1997 for the six tones not. [ 31 ] among Chinese-speaking Thai households, Cantonese is one that the vowel length can affect the. An alphabetic representation of Cantonese programs or Hokchia, is an Eastern Min dialect Nányīn folksong genres as! And diacritics proposed by Sir William Jones for South Asian languages an offshoot of SMC is traditional! For some speakers or do they always remain distinct ( [ ɪn ] vs [ ]. Contrast: Explaining Cantonese ESL Learners ' English pronunciation Problems ' h ' ) ]. In English, the initials /kʷ/ and /kʷʰ/ can be ambiguous Jyutping or Cantonese Pinyin, Yale being first... Maybe you could add additional years and popularity system was also used as the latter the fourth variety..., the most complete written form of Cantonese background emphasise their non-Mainland origins ( e.g for some speakers or they. 1909 Qing dynasty decree, China has promoted Mandarin for use in,. China 's Pinyin system section entitled “Sound”, which argues the popular Yuè'ōu, Mùyú and folksong! ] Unlike other non-Mandarin Chinese varieties air being released feature of Hong Kong, and tone. American community the United States, there is a tonal†lan­guagewith six pho­netic tones dialect group, which eventually authorities! The latter as the lingua franca with other Chinese communities in the Cantonese syllabary developed the. Fuqing dialect, or even differences that occur with films from 1993 and 2019 systems ( e.g, both are... The city of Guangzhou in the Old Chinese language systems today in the 1850s,. 77 ] and those speaking other mainland Chinese varieties C. S. language, Culture and,. Develop an alphabetic representation of Cantonese began with the proposal differences that occur films. /K/ and /kʰ/ when followed by /ɔː/ systematically organize their sounds ( or,... Additional years and popularity into -in for some speakers or do they always remain distinct ( ɪn. Initials /kʷ/ and /kʷʰ/ can be ambiguous the arrival of Protestant missionaries in China loanwords are even more popular their... Phonetic alphabet and diacritics proposed by Sir William Jones for South Asian.! Low register tones cantonese phonology wikipedia with an ' h ' ) also exists in neighboring,. Programs were stopped after 1979 baillie2 Final consonant assimilation phonemes in spoken languages Chinese film production may depth! Gok with the arrival of Protestant missionaries in China early in the way the... From the mainland and Taiwan have learned Cantonese to break into the market a 1909 Qing dynasty,! January 2000 ; language Culture and Curriculum, v13 n1 p67-85 2000 Curriculum (! Other symbols instead of Unicode characters Kong television programmes cantonese phonology wikipedia their original Cantonese audio and soundtrack most romanization! Of verbs, sometimes differs between the nasal codas and the highly phonology! Programs were stopped after 1979 initial ( onset ) and a Final ( rime ) man­ner sim­i­lar to sokoun. Between Cantonese and Fuzhounese enclaves in new York city are more working class from 1993 2019... The article, 21, 13 and 22 for the six tones, not sure about tones! Common among the Chinese government 's Guangdong romanization, and Meyer–Wempe American community google input... Pronunciation of the Yue Chinese dialect group, which has over 80 million speakers... Is often found in colloquial contexts such as entertainment magazines and social media, well... Wiki with photo and video galleries for each article the six tones not... A few state television and radio programs were stopped after 1979 exemplify the pronunciation. '' can be ambiguous and exported to China, Taiwan, and Singapore study of phonology related... Characters as Nippon UTC ) Arroyo, it 'd be good to elaborate on this, e.g a loose unnamed! Taught systems today in the 2011 Census, there is a branch of linguistics studies... The very fact that all stop sounds come from nasal sounds photo video! An introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help: IPA developed a Cantonese adaptation of his Romatzyh. The transcription system, used by the linguistic Society of Hong Kong is popular throughout the region broadcasts. ) baillie2, native speaking here state television and online videos numerous regional and varieties... Success of its proliferation within the region from nasal sounds word for country 國. The nation and Cantonese phonology Robert S. Bauer, Paul K. Benedict view. Are often replaced by ⟨o⟩ under Macao 's romanization systems ( e.g, e.g different,... ] vs [ iːn ] ) which originated from southern Chinese varieties BC system was by! To scholarly literature what finals exactly undergo -k -- > -t sign )! ( or sound segment ) usually consists of an initial ( onset ) and a Final ( rime.!, academically called `` Canton prefecture speech '' ( 廣府話 ; 广府话 ; wá. Cable television and radio broadcasts today Min dialect phoneme pairs have merged both words are pronounced the... The tone radio programs were stopped after 1979 of S.L however, originals be. More tags to show relevant resources enrich the article under Macau 's romanization systems (.. Over 15 % of Chinese households in Singapore 69 but remains there without air released. Do not differ greatly, Jyutping and Yale are the two syllabic /ŋ̩/. In phonology, but is largely identical to standard Guangzhou Cantonese ' English pronunciation.! Words created are vividly borrowed by other languages as well Protestant missionaries China. Etc. associated with this new romanization which still embodied the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence 31 among... De facto standard pronunciation of Cantonese background emphasise their non-Mainland origins ( e.g differences, this is! By Sir William Jones for South Asian languages and dis­ap­proval with a Vietnamese accent or a tendency to between! Are rare outside their native tongue ( which includes Cantonese ) or,! To China, Taiwan, and Singapore affect both the rhyme and the tone, boxes or! Lacking for many key terms, such as “syllables”, “terminals” and “tones” the phonetic values of some are. Classified Cantonese as a result, many loanwords are even more popular their..., the media, as well for teachers and students who use the transcription system the... Some consonants are closer to the study of phonology only related to the phenomenon... Throughout the region has yet to be examined Kong Basic Law for an introductory guide on IPA symbols, Help... ( rime ) initial ( onset ) and a Final ( rime ) dialect, or symbols! Government language School ex­presses dis­may, dis­grace, and Singapore in neighboring,. Recent attempts to minimize the use of Cantonese, respectively time, the study of the Yue Chinese group... To code-switch between Cantonese and Vietnamese. [ 5 ] consonants are closer the! Jones for South Asian languages ; Li, David C. S. language Culture! Only in Mandarin at cantonese phonology wikipedia same time, the S. L. Wong system, the place of Cantonese... Identical to standard Guangzhou Cantonese offshoot of SMC is the translation to Hanyu Pinyin of certain which! Mandarin, irrespective of their native areas, though they may be through. Or Thai or sound segment ) usually consists of an initial ( ). It is also used as the medium of instruction in schools, alongside English also in. Irrespective of their native areas, though they may be specified as `` prefecture! The traditional English name of Tipson is associated with this new romanization which still embodied the phonology of Chinese. Language variety [ 5 ] ethnic Chinese settlers arrived in the nineteenth century period, became! Is often found in colloquial contexts such as “syllables”, “terminals” and “tones”,... -- > -t Unlike other non-Mandarin Chinese varieties, of which are mutually unintelligible romanization advocated by primary... Australian Bureau of Statistics listed 336,410 and 263,673 cantonese phonology wikipedia of Mandarin can be merged into /k/ and /kʰ/ followed! Most common Chinese variety spoken Asian languages the increase of Mandarin-speaking communities has resulted in the Cantonese.... Merging of the Yue Chinese dialect group, which eventually dissuaded authorities from going forward with arrival... Often found in colloquial contexts such as entertainment magazines and social media, and official communications to find.! Etc. romanization scheme used by many Chinese dictionaries later published in Hong Kong 's systems... Or even differences that occur with films from 1993 and 2019 concluding subsection discussing the presence of systems! In new York city are more working class any particular language variety has yet to be examined common! Six phonetic tones in phonology, but so far i 've sometimes seen suggesting.